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外中彩票能Щ:發動機試驗臺架使用操作流程

   日期:2019-05-09     瀏覽:21    評論:0    
核心提示:用于WD615發動機的測試,檢測發動機的機油壓力、水溫、進氣壓力、轉速、電瓶電壓的數值是否正常,測試發動機是否正常運轉,從而判斷發動機是否有故障,會出現的故障及原因分析。

01

WD615發動機實現的功能

Achievable functions of WD615 engine

實現的功能:

Achievable functions:


用于WD615發動機的測試,檢測發動機的機油壓力、

水溫、進氣壓力、轉速、電瓶電壓的數值是否正常,

測試發動機是否正常運轉,從而判斷發動機

是否有故障,會出現的故障及原因分析。

For testing WD615 engine,

test whether the oil pressure, water temperature,

intake pressure, rotational speed and battery

voltage are normal, and whether the engine is

running normally, so as to determine whether

the engine has fault or not, possible fault and

analyze causes.

02

技術要求

Technical requirements

主要技術參數:

Main technical parameters:


① 試驗臺架長*寬*高:2950*1500*1655mm

Length *width *height of test bench:

2,950*1,500*1,655mm

② 機油壓力表數值:0-1.0Mpa

Oil pressure gauge value: 0-1.0Mpa

③ 水溫表數值:0-120°C

Water thermometer value: 0-120°C

④ 進氣壓力表數值:0-0.1Mpa

Manifold pressure gauge value: 0-0.1Mpa

⑤ 轉速表數值:0-3000rpm

Tachometer value: 0-3,000rpm

⑥ 電瓶電壓數值:0-32V

Battery voltage value: 0-32V

03

發動機試制前操作流程

Engine before trial-manufacture operation process

用龍門吊架將發動機吊起,把前后支撐板用螺栓

連接到發動機上;

Lift the engine with a gantry hanger and connect

the front and rear support plate bolts to the engine.

發動機吊裝到位,用前后支撐板連接發動機至

試驗臺的懸置支撐架;

Lift the engine into place and connect

the engine to the test bench suspended

brace with the front and rear support plates.

通過調整懸置支撐架螺桿高度,發動機調整到位;

By adjusting the screw height of the

suspended brace, the engine is adjusted in place.


使發動機風扇中心高度對準水箱和中冷器的中心高度;

To align the center of the engine fan to the center

height of water tank and intercooling.


發動機風扇到試驗臺前端的中冷固定架40mm;

Engine fan to the test bench front-end

intercooled fixed mount 40mm.

前支撐連接螺栓:8只M12*30

外六角螺栓  配平墊連接;

Front support connecting bolt: 8 M12*30

hexagon bolts with flat gasket connection;

后支撐連接螺栓:2只M14*1.5*30

4只M14*1.5*50  外六角螺栓  配平墊和彈墊

Front support connecting bolt: 2 M14*1.5*30

4 M14*1.5*50

hexagon bolts with flat gasket and spring washer.

水箱的進出接口和中冷器進出接口通過硅膠管

分別與發動機進行連接,用卡箍固定牢靠;

The inlet and outlet interface of the water tank

and the inlet and outlet interface of the intercooler

are connected to the engine respectively through

the silicone tube, and the clamp is used to fix firmly.

加注完防凍液后檢查管路連接情況,

確保發動機點火后能夠正常運轉,無泄漏現象;

After filling the antifreeze, the pipeline

connection is checked to ensure that the engine

can run normally after ignition without leakage.

連接暖風接頭:高壓管內徑φ22mm;

Connecting warm air joint:

Inside diameter of high-pressure pipe φ22mm.

連接膨脹水壺:兩根φ8mm蛇皮管,

一根接水箱小循環接頭,另一根接暖風接頭處;

一根高壓管φ22mm接水箱出水連接管,

主要用于加注防凍液,用卡箍固定牢靠;

Connecting expansion kettle: two φ8mm

flexible conduits,

one is connected to the small circulating joint

of the water tank,

the other is connected to the warm air joint;

a high pressure pipe φ22mm is connected

to the outlet connection pipe of the water tank,

which is mainly used for filling the antifreeze;

the clamp is used to fix firmly.


加注防凍液后檢查管路的連接情況,

確保發動機點火后能夠正常運轉,無泄漏現象;

After filling the antifreeze,

the pipeline connection is checked to ensure

that the engine can run normally

after ignition without leakage.

連接發動機空濾到試驗臺的空濾總成;

Connect the engine air filter to the air filter

assembly of the test bench.

渦輪增壓口排氣端到試驗臺的排氣管,

用卡箍和固定牢靠;

Connect the exhaust end of the turbocharged

port to the exhaust pipe of the test bench

and fix firmly with a clamp.

連接手拉油門支架和熄火缸;

Connect hand-held throttle bracket

and flameout cylinder.


連接柴油管線,進、回油管;

Connect diesel pipeline, inlet and return pipe.

連接電瓶線到電瓶開關和起動機;

Connect battery cable to the battery switch

and starter.

連接檢測用的傳感器等其它管線線束,

將其固定牢靠位置;

Connect other pipeline harness,

such as sensors for detection,

and hold it firmly in position.

轉速傳感器及線束

水溫傳感器及線束

電瓶電壓線束直接接起動機

機油壓力線束及接頭

進氣壓力線束及接頭

連接控制臺手拉油門拉線至支架和熄火缸;

檢查管線的連接,確保連接牢靠、無誤。

Connect the hand-held throttle stay of

control panel to the bracket and flameout cylinder;

Finally, check the pipeline connection to ensure

that the connection is reliable and correct.

04

發動機性能驗證操作流程

Operation process of engine performance verification

打開點火鑰匙開關,電瓶電壓表顯示24V;

Turn on the ignition key switch,

the battery voltage meter displays 24V.

通過控制手拉油門大小,實現發動機的不同轉速;

By controlling the hand-held throttle,

the different rotational speeds

of the engine can be realized.

分別讀取控制臺上的儀表數值,

與整車上的參考值對比:檢測發動機的運轉情況,

可讀取的數值機油壓力、水溫、進氣壓力、

發動機轉速、電瓶電壓。

Read the meter value on the control panel,

respectively, and compare with the reference value

on the vehicle: Test engine operation, readable

numerical oil pressure, water temperature, intake

pressure, engine rotational speed and battery

voltage.

① 轉速600rpm時:機油壓力0.5mpa?!鏡∷佟?/span>

Rotational speed 600rpm:

Oil pressure 0.5mpa [idle speed]

② 轉速1000rpm時:機油壓力0.6mpa。

Rotational speed 1,000rpm:

Oil pressure 0.6mpa

③ 轉速1500rpm時:機油壓力0.6mpa,

進氣壓力0.01mpa。

Rotational speed 1,500rpm,

oil pressure 0.6mpa,

intake pressure 0.01mpa

④ 轉速2000rpm時:機油壓力0.65mpa,

進氣壓力0.02mpa。

Rotational speed 2,000rpm,

oil pressure 0.65mpa,

intake pressure 0.02mpa

⑤ 在發動機運轉30分鐘后,水溫表顯示數值約50℃。

After the engine has been running for 30 minutes,

the water thermometer shows about 50 ℃

松開手拉油門,關閉點火鑰匙,發動機停止運轉,

將發動機吊裝下來,發動機測試完畢。

Release the hand-held throttle,

turn off the ignition key,

stop the engine from running,

lift the engine down,

and finish the engine test.

05

原理故障表

Principle fault list

A. 在點火后通過控制臺上的儀表數值的大小,

判斷被檢測的發動機的運轉是否正常。

Determine whether the tested engine is running

properly or not through the size of the meter

value on the control panel after ignition.


B. 故障分析:

Fault Analysis:


1. 怠速不穩的原因:

Reason of rough idling

① 進氣系統。

Intake system


第一個原因是進氣系統,進氣管以及各種閥門的泄漏。

空氣或者是從進氣管進入,還有廢氣進入到進氣管,

會造成混合器過濃、過稀,使發動機燃燒不正常。

節氣門和進氣道積垢過多。怠速進氣量的失準。

The first reason is the leakage of the intake system,

intake pipe and various valves.

Air enters from the intake pipe and exhaust gas

entering into the intake pipe will cause the mixer

to be too dense and too thin, causing the engine

to burn abnormally. There is excessive fouling on

the throttle and air inlet. Misalignment of

idle air inflow.

② 燃油系統。

Fuel system


若大泵有滴漏或堵塞現象,使其無法過油,

從而造成混合氣過濃或過稀,使個別氣缸工作不良,

導致發動機怠速不穩。燃油壓力故障。油壓過低,

噴油量減少使混合氣過??;油壓過高,

實際噴油量增加,使混合氣過濃。噴油量失準。

If the large pump has dripping or

blocking phenomenon, it cannot filter the oil,

resulting in the mixture is too dense or too thin,

which makes individual cylinders work poorly and

leads to unstable engine idle speed.

Fuel pressure fault. When the oil pressure is too

low, the mixture becomes too thin due to the

decrease of fuel-injection quantity; When the oil

pressure is too high, the actual fuel-injection

quantity increases, which causes too thick mixture.

Misalignment of fuel-injection quantity.

③ 機械機構。

Mechanical structure


第一是配氣機構,配氣機構故障導致個別氣缸的功率

下降過多,從而使功率不平衡。

第二是氣門工作面與氣門座圈積碳過多,

造成氣門密封不嚴。

第三是發動體和活塞連桿機構,

它有故障也會使壓縮壓力不一致。

The first is the valve actuating mechanism,

the failure of valve actuating mechanism

causes the power of individual cylinders to

decrease too much and the power is unbalanced.

The second is valve face and valve retainer

have too much carbon deposit, causing valve seal

is not firm. The third is the actuator and

piston-connecting rod mechanism,

which may cause the compression

pressure to be inconsistent with faults.

④ 排氣系統堵塞。

Exhaust system blocking


與三元催化器內因部因結膠、積炭、破碎等原因

造成局部堵塞或隨機堵塞,就加大排氣時的反壓力,

使進氣管真空度過低,造成發動機排氣不徹底、

進氣不充分,氣缸性能變差。發動機怠速發抖。

進氣不順暢可能造成電腦記憶空氣流量計故障代碼。

若該故障長時間不排除,將使氧傳感器長期在

惡劣條件下工作,加速了氧傳感器的損壞,

造成發動機故障燈亮。

When the three-way catalyst causes local or

random blocking due to gumming, carbon

deposition and fragmentation, it will increase

the back pressure of exhaust gas, make the intake

pipe vacuum too low, and cause the engine exhaust

gas to be incomplete and the intake air not

sufficient. As a result, the working performance of

the cylinder becomes worse. Engine idle trembling.

Air intake problems may also cause computer

memory air flow meter fault code. If the fault is not

ruled out for a long time, it will make the oxygen

sensor workingin harsh conditions for a long time,

accelerate the damage of the oxygen sensor, and

cause the engine fault light to turn on.

2. 水溫高的原因:

Reason of high-water temperature

① 水箱缺水。

Water tank water depletion

發動機是通過水冷的方式來降溫,雖然水箱里的

冷卻液消耗的比較慢,但是也有消耗,

有些車主沒有檢查冷卻液的習慣,

水箱長時間缺水,導致水溫高。

The engine is cooled by water cooling, although

the coolant consumption in the water tank is slow,

there is also consumption. Some owners do not

check the coolant, the water tank is short of water

for a long time, resulting in high water temperature.

② 節溫器故障。

Thermostat fault

有些車主開車沒走幾公里就發現水溫升高,

也沒有發現哪個水管有漏水的地方,

像這種故障可能是節溫器打不開,

汽車冷卻系統不能進行大循環,導致水溫高。

Some car owners find that the water temperature

rise after driving a few kilometers, and there was

no leak in the water pipe. This kind of fault may

be that thermostat cannot be opened, the car

cooling system cannot carry on a general

circulation, resulting in high water temperature.

③ 水管漏水。

Water pipe leakage

開車過程中發現汽車有漏水的地方,

檢查是水管老化、破裂漏水,

這種情況相對來說容易發現,

到維修店更換相應的水管即可。

In the course of driving, if finding out where

the car has water leakages, check the water

pipe aging and breakage. It is easy to find it,

and you can replace the corresponding water

pipe at the maintenance shop.

④ 水箱散熱不良。

Bad water tank heat dissipation

有些車主直接用水當作冷卻液,

長時間使用水做媒體會導致發動機及水箱內產生水銹,

水箱散熱不良導致水溫高,

想要解決這種辦法是把水銹先排除,

然后清洗或更換水箱。

Some car owners directly use water as coolant.

Long-term use of water as the media will lead

to water rust in the engine and water tank, the

bad heat dissipation of the water tank leads to

high water temperature. Solving this problem is

to remove the rust first, then clean or replace

the water tank.


⑤ 水泵故障。

Water pump fault

水泵是汽車冷卻系統的核心,現在汽車用的水泵

大多數是葉片式的,長時間泵水后葉片會打磨掉,

水系統不循環水溫高。

The water pump is the core part of cooling system

in the car. Now most of the water pumps used in

car are blade-type. After working for a long time,

the blades will be polished away, which will cause

the water system does not circulate and the water

temperature is high.

⑥ 缸床墊變形。

Cylinder mattress is deformed

有些車主反應汽車水溫高,但在實際用車過程中

并沒有發現有漏水的地方,另外水箱內的冷卻液

消耗的比較快,這種情況是發動機缸床墊變形或

破損導致少量冷卻水進入發動機燃燒,

所以會出現汽車行駛一段時間后水箱缺水,水溫高。

Some car owners reacted to the high water

temperature of the car, but actually there was

no water leakage when using the car. In addition,

a small amount of cooling water enters into the

engine due to deformation or damage of the

engine cylinder mattress. In this situation, the

coolant in the tank was consumed more quickly,

so there will be a water shortage in the water

tank after the car has been running for a while

and the water temperature is high.

⑦ 電子扇故障。

Electronic fan failure

汽車水箱內的熱量通過電子風扇轉動來散發出來,

如果電子扇不工作熱量散不掉,汽車水溫肯定會升高。

The heat from water tank on the car is emitted by

the rotation of the electronic fan. If the electric fan

does not work, the water temperature of the car will

definitely rise.

⑧ 傳感器故障。

Sensor fault

汽車上的水溫傳感器控制水箱電子風扇的運轉,

如果水溫傳感器有故障,沒有信號啟動散熱風扇,

水溫也會升高。

The water temperature sensor on the car controls

the operation of the electronic fan in water tank.

If the water temperature sensor is faulty and there

is no signal to activate the cooling fan, the water

temperature will be rose.

⑨ 線束故障。

Harness fault


汽車上的線束是整個汽車的神經,

如果線路有故障也會間接導致水溫高。

The harness on the car is the core part

of the whole car. If the line is faulty,

it will indirectly lead to high water temperature.

3. 電壓低的原因:

Reason for low voltage:

① 第一種導致汽車電瓶電壓過低情況的發生的原因

就是長期的閑置汽車,因為汽車電瓶內部構造、比重、

溫度、物質不純的原因,電瓶往往會發生自放電,

一般在一天內會放掉0.5~1%電量,

如果汽車長期的閑置不用,就容易導致電瓶放電過度,

無法繼續充電使用情況的發生。

The long-term idle car is the first reason to cause

the low voltage of car battery. Because of the

internal structure, specific gravity, temperature

and material impureness of the car battery, the

battery will often self-discharge, and will usually

be discharged 0.5~1% of electricity in one day.

If the car is not used for a long time, it will easily

lead to excessive battery discharge and be unable

to continue charging.

② 現如今,普通的汽車電瓶一般都采用的貧液式設計,

電解液里面的水分通常也會自然而然的漸漸揮發,

會逐漸形成白色硫酸鉛化,在汽車電瓶內部極板嚴重

硫酸鉛化后,再想要去充電、補水也是不行的,

是無法恢復其容量的。

Nowadays, ordinary car batteries generally was

designed as lean liquid type. The moisture in the

electrolyte will be gradually volatilized, and white

lead sulfate will be gradually formed. After the

internal electrode of the car battery is severely

sulfated, recharging the battery cannot restore

its capacity, and hydration is also not enough.

③ 由于汽車電瓶內部是純化學反應,它主要利用原理是,

將電能儲存成化學能儲存,在需要使用放電的時候,

將化學能轉換成電能,因此由于技術的原因電瓶本身

也是有壽命限制的,一般的電瓶本身壽命基本也只是

在充放電300次,當使用壽命差不多的時候,

就會出現電壓過低的情況了。

Since the interior of the car battery is a purely

chemical reaction, its main principle is to store

electrical energy into chemical energy storage.

When the discharge is required, the chemical

energy is converted into electrical energy.

Therefore, the battery has a service life limit due

to technical problems. The service life of a typical

battery is basically only 300 times of charging

and discharging. When the service life is

almost the same, the voltage will be too low.

4. 機油壓力高的原因:

Reasons for high oil pressure

① 機油粘度過大。

Oil viscosity is too large

機油粘度的大小表明了機油流動時的內摩擦阻力大小。

機油粘度的大小與發動機溫度有關,發動機溫度低時,

機油粘度大;反之,發動機溫度高時,機油粘度小。

機油粘度大時流動性差但密封性好,泄漏量少。

如果機油粘度超過規定值,機油在潤滑系統內流動

阻力會增大,同時壓力升高。發動機溫度低或機油

本身粘度大(因對機油牌號選用不當,即機油牌號

不適合環境溫度,如冬季選用了夏季粘度大的機油)

機油壓力會高。

The oil viscosity indicates the amount of internal

friction resistance when the oil flows. The oil

viscosity is related to the engine temperature.

When the engine temperature is low, the viscosity

of the oil is large. Conversely, when the engine

temperature is high, the oil viscosity is small. When

oil viscosity is large, the fluidity is poor, but the

leakproof is good, and the leakage amount is small.

If the oil viscosity exceeds the specified value,

the flow resistance of the oil in the lubrication

system will be increased. At the same, the pressure

will be increased. This shows that the engine

temperature is low or the oil viscosity is large,

the oil pressure will be high. Because the oil grade

is not properly selected, that is the oil grade is not

suitable for the ambient temperature. For example,

the large oil viscosity for summer is selected

in winter.

② 壓力潤滑部位間隙過小或機油細濾器堵塞潤滑油路。

The gap of pressure lubrication part is too small

or the oil fine filter block the lubricating oil to flow.

潤滑系機油循環回路的流動阻力等于并聯支路機油

流動阻力的倒數之和。壓力潤滑部位的凸輪軸軸頸、

連桿軸頸、曲軸軸頸、搖臂軸等,這些潤滑部位

如果配合間隙過小,細濾清器的濾芯過臟使機油

回路堵塞,以及限壓閥調整壓力過高等,

均會使潤滑系油路的流動阻力增大,壓力升高。

It shows that the flow resistance of the lubricating

oil circulation circuit is equal to the sum of the

reciprocal of the parallel branch oil flow resistance.

If the matching clearance of the camshaft journal,

the connecting rod journal, the crankshaft journal

and the rocker shaft on the pressure lubrication

part is too small and the filter element of the fine

filter is dirty, the oil circuit will be blocked. And if

the pressure of the pressure limiting valve is

adjusted too high, the flow resistance of the

lubricating oil circuit will be increased and the

pressure will be increased.

③ 限壓閥調整不當。

The pressure of the pressure limiting

valve is adjusted improperly

由限壓閥組成和工作原理可知,限壓閥是靠平衡彈簧

和球閥來限制機油壓力的,并使之機油壓力不超過

技術文件的規定值?;脫沽Τ娑ㄖ凳?,

便克服彈簧的彈力將閥門推開向系統內泄壓,

機油壓力低于彈簧彈力時,閥門在彈簧的作用下關閉,

從而將壓力限制在規定的范圍內。潤滑系的機油壓力

取決于彈簧彈力的大小,如果調整的彈簧彈力過大,

會使系統內的機油壓力過高。

According to the composition and working principle

of the pressure limiting valve, the pressure limiting

valve relies on the balance spring and the ball valve

to limit the oil pressure, and the oil pressure does

not exceed the specified value of the technical

documents. When the oil pressure exceeds the

specified value, the valve is pushed away from the

spring by the spring force of spring to relieve

pressure in the system. When the oil pressure is

lower than the spring force, the valve is closed with

the action of the spring to limit the pressure within

the specified range. From this point of view,

the oil pressure in the lubrication system depends

on the spring force of the spring. If the adjusted

spring force is too large, the oil pressure in the

system will be too large.

④ 機油濾清器堵塞。

Engine oil filter is blocked

當機油濾清器堵塞而不能流通時,設在濾清器底座

上的安全閥就被頂開,機油便不經過濾而直接

進入主油道。如果安全閥的開啟壓力調的過高,

當濾清器被堵塞時就不能及時頂開,機油泵壓力升高,

內漏增加,對主油道的供油量相應減少,

引起油壓的下降。應經常保持機油濾清器的清潔;

正確地調整安全閥的開啟壓力(一般為0.35-0.45Mpa);

及時更換安全閥的彈簧或研磨鋼珠與閥座的配合面,

恢復其正常的工作性能。

When the oil filter is clogged and the oil cannot be

flowed, the safety valve installed on the filter base

is opened and the oil will directly flow into the main

oil passage without filtering. If the opening

pressure of the safety valve is too large, it cannot

be opened in time when the filter is blocked.

Therefore,if the pressure of the oil pump is

increased, the internal leakage will be increased,

and the oil supply to the main oil passage is

correspondingly reduced, which will decline oil

pressure. It should be always kept the oil filter

clean; Adjust the opening pressure of the

safety valve correctly (it is generally 0.35-0.45Mpa);

Replace the spring of the safety valve or the mating

surface of the grinding steel ball with the valve seat

in time to restore its normal working performance.

5. 進氣壓力低的原因:

Reasons for low intake pressure

① 空氣需求量大于供給量。

Air demand is greater than supply

檢查供氣管道上的閥門是否開啟或系統上是否

有漏氣現象,減少用氣量。

Check if the valve on the air supply pipe is open

or not, if there is air leakage on the system or not,

which reduce the air consumption.

② 油氣分離器堵塞。

Oil and gas separator is blocked

由于油路系統中或多或少存在某些雜質,

濾芯工作一段時間后,會發生阻塞現象使壓縮空氣

通過濾芯的阻力增加,影響機組的正常工作。

操作人員根據監控器面板上的信號,及時更換濾芯。

Due to more or less impurities in the oil system,

the filter element will be blocked after it is operated

for a period of time, which will increase the

resistance of the compressed air through the filter

element and affect the normal operation.

Therefore, the operator should replace the filter

element in time according tothe signal displayed

on the monitor panel.

③ 空氣過濾器堵塞。

Air filter is clogged

空氣濾清器的作用是將吸入的空氣加以過濾,

保證進入空氣壓縮機的空氣清潔干凈。

如果空氣過濾器濾芯堵塞嚴重將影響到

機組的進氣量。所以必須及時更換其濾芯。

The air filter is to filter the inhaled air to ensure

that the air entering into the air compressor is

clean. If the air filter element is clogged, it will

affect the intake air volume of the machine.

Therefore, it is necessary to replace its filter

element in time.

④ 壓力調節器失靈或損壞。

Pressure regulator is malfunctioned or damaged

壓力調節系統的功能是根據客戶用氣量的大小,

自動調節壓縮機,以便達到供需平衡。

所以要對損壞的壓力調節器及時更換,

對失靈的壓力調節器及時調整。

The pressure regulation system is to automatically

adjust the compressor according to the amount of

gas used by the customer in order to achieve a

alance between supply and demand. Therefore,

it is necessary to replace the damaged pressure

regulator in time, and adjust the malfunctioning

pressure regulator in time.

⑤ 進氣閥不能完全打開。

Air intake valve is not fully open

進氣閥的功能是控制進氣量?;槁漢稍誦惺?,

進氣閥處于全開狀態。當用戶所需用氣量減小時,

由氣量調節裝置向進氣閥輸入壓縮空氣,

使進氣閥開度減小,從而減少壓縮機的進氣量,

進氣閥故障將影響機組所帶負荷的多少。

The intake valve is to control the amount of intake

air. When the machine is running at full load,

the intake valve is fully open. When the amount of

gas required by the user is reduced, the device of

air volume adjusting will input compressed air to

the intake valve to reduce the opening degree of

the intake valve, which will reduce the intake air

amount of the compressor. The Intake valve

failure will affect the load on the unit.

⑥ 控制管路漏氣。

Control line is leaked.

空氣壓縮機控制管路漏氣將使進氣閥無法

全部打開以至于機組負荷無法帶滿。

Air leakage from the air compressor control line

will prevent the intake valve from opening

completely so that the unit load cannot be

fully loaded.


 
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